Here two experiments, each with 36 panels, tested colonization (factors: depth, season of immersion) and succession (factors: depth, submersion duration) over one year.

The results illustrate the potential importance of fouling hydroids and their medusae to the health of organisms in the aquaculture industry.

Martell L, Bracale R, Carrion SA, Purcell JE, Lezzi M, Gravili C, Piraino S, Boero F. Successional dynamics of marine fouling hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) at a finfish aquaculture facility in the Mediterranean Sea. PloS one. 2018 Apr 2;13(4):e0195352.