In this paper CERES researchers advocate that a fully-structured approach using the IEC/ISO 31010 Bow-tie analysis will allow all elements to be integrated for a cost-effective system.

This system is described with examples for the marine environment, will fulfil many of the demands by the users and uses of the marine system and the regulators of those users and uses. It allows for bridging several aspects: the management and environmental sciences, the management complexity and governance demands, the natural and social sciences and socio-economics and outcomes. Most importantly, the use of the Bow-tie approach bridges systems analysis and ecosystem complexity.

Cormier R, Elliott M, Rice J. Putting on a bow-tie to sort out who does what and why in the complex arena of marine policy and management. Science of the Total Environment. 2019 Jan 15;648:293-305.