We investigated the effects of P. noctiluca envenomations on the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata by in vivo laboratory assays.

Results show P. noctiluca swarms may represent a high risk for Mediterranean finfish aquaculture farms, generating significant gill damage after only a few hours of contact with farmed S. aurata. Due to the growth of the aquaculture sector and the increased frequency of jellyfish blooms in the coastal waters, negative interactions between stinging jellyfish and farmed fish are likely to increase with the potential for significant economic losses.

Bosch-Belmar M, M’Rabet C, Dhaouadi R, Chalghaf M, Yahia MN, Fuentes V, Piraino S, Yahia OK. Jellyfish stings trigger gill disorders and increased mortality in farmed Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Mediterranean Sea. PloS One. 2016 Apr 21;11(4):e0154239.