Climate-driven changes in aquatic environments have already started to affect the European aquaculture sector’s most commercially important finfish and shellfish species. In addition to changes in water quality and temperature that can directly influence fish production by altering health status, growth performance and/or feed conversion, the aquaculture sector also faces an uncertain future in terms of production costs and returns. For example, the availability of key ingredients for fish feeds (proteins, omega-3 fatty acids) will not only depend on future changes in climate, but also on social and political factors, thereby influencing feed costs. The future cost of energy, another main expenditure for fish farms, will also depend on various factors. Finally, marketing options and subsidies will have major impacts on future aquaculture profitability.

Kreiss CM, Papathanasopoulou E, Hamon KG, Pinnegar JK, Rybicki S, Micallef G, Tabeau A, Cubillo AM, Peck MA. Future socio-political scenarios for aquatic resources in Europe: an operationalized framework for aquaculture projections. Frontiers in Marine Science. 2020 Sep 29.