We examine the spatial distributions of tuna larvae in the world’s oceans, and examine interspecific differences in the light of adult behaviors and larval ecology.

We also examine the challenges of sustainably managing species which migrate across multiple management boundaries to reach spatio-temporally restricted spawning grounds and discuss the previous and future anthropogenic impacts on tuna spawning areas.

Muhling BA, Lamkin JT, Alemany F, García A, Farley J, Ingram GW, Berastegui DA, Reglero P, Carrion RL. Reproduction and larval biology in tunas, and the importance of restricted area spawning grounds. Reviews in fish biology and fisheries. 2017 Dec 1;27(4):697-732.